You may have heard that addiction isn’t a real mental health problem, that it’s voluntary. The truth is, it IS a real mental health condition. Also known as substance use disorder, addiction is a mental health condition that alters a person’s brain and behavior, leading to an inability to control their substance use.
Addiction is the most severe form of a substance use disorder. And in 2020, 40.3 million Americans aged 12 or older — that’s 14.5% of our population — reported a substance use disorder leaving them vulnerable to addiction.
Below, we’ll dispel five common myths about addiction. Keep reading to learn more about this misunderstood topic.
This is simply not true. While many instances of substance use are voluntary at first, some instances are involuntary, such as following a prescription by a trusted medical provider.
According to the American Psychiatric Association, addiction can be defined as “a state of psychological or physical dependence (or both) on the use of alcohol or other drugs.”
Plus, research shows that actual changes to the brain occur in people with addiction. These changes affect judgment, decision-making, learning, memory, and behavior control. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, “after continued use, a person's ability to exert self-control can become seriously impaired. This impairment in self-control is the hallmark of addiction.”
True, people can become addicted to illicit substances. But people can also become addicted to legal substances, like tobacco or alcohol, and prescribed substances, like opioids.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5), the standard textbook used to diagnose mental health conditions published by the American Psychiatric Association, classifies the following substances associated with addiction and abuse:
Addiction is also sometimes applied to behavioral disorders, such as sexual, Internet, and gambling addictions.
False. What you say matters (more on that here) and can influence others either positively or negatively. And research shows someone with a substance use disorder is less willing to seek help if they feel stigmatized.
To help reduce bias, consider the words you use and how you communicate about certain topics. Use people-first language to help keep the person separate from their mental health condition. The National Institute on Drug Abuse has a helpful chart of terms to avoid and terms to use when talking about addiction here.
Symptoms like a change in appearance, trembling, and excessive sweating are visible signs of withdrawal. But those aren’t the only signs that something serious is going on.
There are social symptoms that may show up first or at the same time. Social symptoms include:
If someone you know has a substance use disorder, these behavior changes could be a symptom of their addiction or withdrawal.
Absolutely not. Addiction is a complex part of a chronic, treatable condition. With the right help, treatment makes living with substance use disorder possible.
Some options for treatment include therapy, support groups, medication, and rehabilitation. A comprehensive plan will include medical and mental health services — including the evaluation and treatment for possible co-occurring mental health issues like anxiety or depression. Long-term follow-up care can help prevent relapse.
It’s important to remember that each individual will need to find a personalized treatment plan based on their own health history. Treatment plans should be reviewed often and modified as their needs change.
If you think you or a loved one might be experiencing addiction, talk with a doctor or mental health provider about the symptoms or changes in behavior you’re noticing. They can help create a personalized treatment plan that is right for you or them.
The signs of addiction can be hard to pinpoint because they vary greatly. Addiction is a term used to describe a variety of substance use and activity dependencies, and this article should not be used in place of medical advice.
If you or a loved one are experiencing a mental health emergency, do not use this site. Instead, call 911 or use one of these emergency resources.
American Psychological Association (APA). (n.d.). APA Dictionary of Psychology. APA Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved January 19, 2022, from https://dictionary.apa.org/addiction
Mayo Clinic. (2017, October 26). Drug addiction (substance use disorder) - Symptoms and causes. Retrieved January 19, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/drug-addiction/symptoms-causes/syc-20365112
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2021, March). Substance Use and Co-Occurring Mental Disorders. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Retrieved January 18, 2022, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/substance-use-and-mental-health
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). 2020, July 13. Drug Misuse and Addiction. Retrieved from https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drug-misuse-addiction/ on 2022, January 19
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). 2019, January 17. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction DrugFacts. Retrieved from https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction on 2022, January 19
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2021, November 29). Words Matter - Terms to Use and Avoid When Talking About Addiction. Retrieved January 19, 2022, from https://nida.nih.gov/nidamed-medical-health-professionals/health-professions-education/words-matter-terms-to-use-avoid-when-talking-about-addiction
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2020). Highlights for the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Impact of the DSM-IV to DSM-5 Changes on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2016 Jun. 2, Substance Use Disorders. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519702/